Jupiter (sometimes Jove) is the Roman counterpart of Zeus. As Jupiter, he becomes more strict, disciplined, militaristic, responsible, calm and warlike. The Greeks envisioned Zeus as a powerful and proud being, while the Romans envisioned Jupiter as a more formal and stoic version of his Greek counterpart, as well as more responsible.
Jupiter come from the the proto - indo - european word / root Deus, meaning god, combined with possibly the word pater, meaning father. Thus it means father of the gods.
Jupiter is the chief god of the Roman pantheon and king of the gods, equivalent to and cognate with the Greek Zeus. He is a god of light and the sky, regarded as the protector of the state and its laws. The Romans worshipped him especially as Iuppiter Optimus Maximus ("Jupiter the Best and the Greatest"). This name refers not only to his rule over the universe, but also to his function as the deity who distributes laws, controls the realm, and makes his will known through various oracles. He is also called Jove, most notably by English poets such as Alexander Pope and George Chapman, a name which derives from the majority of the grammatical forms of the word Iuppiter, all of which take the form Iov- (e.g. Iovis, Iove, Iovī).
He had a temple on Rome's Capitoline Hill, sharing it with his wife Juno and daughter Minerva, but he was the most prominent of this Capitoline triad. His temple was not only the most important sanctuary in Rome, but was also the center of Roman political life; there official offerings were made, treaties were signed and wars were declared, and the triumphant generals of the Roman army came here to give their thanks.
The distinguishing character of his person is majesty, and every thing about him carries dignity and authority with it; his look is meant to strike, sometimes with terror, and sometimes with gratitude, but always with respect. The Capitoline Jupiter, or Iuppiter Optimus Maximus, was the great guardian of the Romans, and was represented, in his chief temple, on the Capitoline Hill, as sitting on a curule chair, with a bolt of lightning in his right hand, and a scepter in his left.
The poets describe him as standing amidst his rapid horses, or his horses that make the thunder; for as the ancients had a strange idea of the brazen vault of heaven, they seem to have attributed the noise in a thunder storm to the rattling of Jupiter's chariot and horses on that great arch of brass all over their heads, as they supposed that he himself flung the flames out of his hand, which dart at the same time out of the clouds, beneath this arch.
Under the reign of Jupiter arose the Silver Age, which succeeded the Golden Age of Saturn and preceded the Bronze Age. The four Ages of Man as described by Ovid are the Golden Age, Silver Age, Bronze Age, and the Iron Age, in which man grows increasingly deceitful and dishonorable.
When Jason Grace is found by Annabeth Chase at the Grand Canyon, he calls the gods by their Roman names instead of the Greek ones. Later that day, Chiron, who knows a small bit about his past, says that Jason was already claimed. To prove this, Jason calls down a bolt of lightning to prove he is a son of Zeus, but in actuality, he is a son of Jupiter.
Later when meeting with Thalia Grace, she talks about how Zeus returned to their mother Beryl once after she was born. She described him as being different from how she remembered him, being more forbearing, mature, and fatherly. This is because Beryl had gained not the attention of Zeus, but Jupiter.
During the battle with Enceladus on Mount Diablo, Jason prays to his father for help as a giant can only be killed by a god and a demigod working together. Despite Zeus' ban on getting involved in mortal affairs, Jupiter intervenes directly by sending a lightning bolt down to help his son out. The lightning bolt blasts through Jason and the Gigantes and cracks open the mountain itself with its sheer power. This proves to be enough of an intervention by Jupiter to kill Enceladus despite Jupiter not facing the giant in person.
While not seen, the Roman demigods have the highest respect for Jupiter. The camp itself is named after him, as well as the largest temple on Temple Hill, the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and has a large statue of Jupiter holding a lightning bolt inside. When Percy Jackson saw it, he remarked on how his bolt didn't look like that. Later, after the Roman War Games, Mars appeared and told the Romans that while Jupiter doesn't like the gods speaking directly to mortals, he gave Mars permission to speak for only a few minutes.
Iris also mentioned Jupiter to Frank Zhang, telling him that he was the one that sent the harpies to keep food and drink away from Phineas as punishment for revealing the intentions of the gods to mortals. Jupiter is later mentioned by Juno during her conversation with Percy, admitting to him that she was working behind Jupiter's back in order to bring the two sets of demigods together. She also admits that Jupiter has a long history of his pride leading him to be wrong on important issues only to be forced to change his stance on a later date.
Jason is stated to be a son of Jupiter multiple times.
Juno explains she has to keep moving and cannot do much to aid the demigods because Jupiter blames her for the war and seeks to punish her.
During the final battle against the giants, Jason fully accepts his status as a son of Jupiter. When the gods arrive, Jason initially believes that his father has come as Jupiter before realizing that it's actually Zeus instead.
Upon meeting Sadie Kane and Walt Stone, Mad Claude believes them to be Roman priests come to free the trapped souls in the catacombs. After realizing that they don't know the problem, Mad Claude swears "oh, Jupiter" before explaining.
When the time comes to summon a god for help, Apollo briefly considers summoning Jupiter, knowing that he could smite the emperors' armies, heal Apollo of his zombie infection and set everything right at Camp Jupiter. Apollo hopes that Jupiter might possibly even notice all of the heroic things that Apollo has done, decide he'd suffered enough and release Apollo from the punishment of his mortal form, but knows that Jupiter, who Apollo believes is waiting for him to summon, might just laugh and refuse to come. To Apollo's surprise, he realizes that he doesn't want his godhood back that badly or even to live that badly and he decides not to go crawling to his father for help. Instead, Apollo chooses to summon Diana, knowing that his sister is more likely to come.
After the battle, Diana states that a summons from the Sibylline Books performed on Temple Hill was something that even Jupiter couldn't argue against responding to despite his decree that no god will come to Apollo's aid.
According to Thalia, Jupiter is far more disciplined than his Greek counterpart, acting in a more paternal manner towards his children than Zeus. Jupiter also limits how and when the gods can interact with mortals and demigods, showing a more strict and closed up relationship even towards his own demigod children. However, despite his decree as Zeus not to interfere anymore following the Second Titan War, he intervened in the fight against Enceladus by responding to Jason's prayer with a lightning bolt to help kill the giant.
Although he, as Zeus, had forbidden the other gods for interacting with Apollo after he is turned mortal, Jupiter allows Diana to aid her brother when Apollo performs a summoning from the Sibylline Books on Temple Hill. Diana notes that it was something that even Jupiter couldn't argue against responding to. Apollo briefly considered summoning his father instead, but he believed that Jupiter wouldn't come and it wouldn't be worth it despite Jupiter being more than powerful enough to rectify the situation.
- Jupiter, like his counterpart Zeus, is the most powerful god. In terms of destructive capabilities, Jupiter is unmatched. As one of the Big Three, Jupiter has the ultimate powers a god can possess, and is rivaled only by his brothers, Neptune and Pluto, although Jupiter believes he is above his brothers in raw power. He possesses the standard physical, intellectual, and magical superiority inherent in all gods, though to a much greater degree due to his status as one of the oldest gods as well as one of the Big Three.
- Aerokinesis: As the God of the Sky, he has absolute control over air.
- Nephelokinesis: He has complete control over clouds.
- He can manipulate clouds and any other air structures.
- He can generate wind.
- He can generate incredibly powerful hurricanes and tornadoes.
- He can manipulate air currents and fly.
- Atmokinesis: As the God of the Sky, he has absolute control over the weather.
- Electrokinesis: As the God of Thunder and Lightning, he has absolute control over both static and celestial electricity.
- Vitakinesis: In The Tyrant's Tomb, Apollo believed that if he summoned Jupiter to help, the god would be capable of healing his zombie infection.
|Alcmene||Hercules (born a demigod)|
|Juno||Mars, Lucina, Bellona, and Juventas|
|Latona||Diana and Apollo|
|Semele||Bacchus (born a demigod)|
|Beryl Grace||Jason Grace|
- Jupiter is the namesake of Camp Jupiter.
- The fifth and biggest planet of the Solar System was named after the god.
- Jupiter's moons, with the exception of Ganymede and Pasiphae, are all named after his ex-lovers (Callisto, Europa, etc.)
- An alternate name for Jupiter is Jove, used by Pope in his translation of The Iliad. This arises from the fact that although the nominative and vocative singular cases are Iuppiter, the rest take forms with the stem Iov-. For example, the genitive singular is Iovis.
- Jupiter is referred to as Optimus Maximus, meaning "the best and the greatest" in Latin. The former is the superlative masculine singular form of bonus (good), and the latter is the superlative masculine singular of magnus (great, big).
- Jupiter, a town in Florida, is named after this Roman god.
- Frank Zhang states that as Jupiter, Zeus became a more responsible god. This could relate to Thalia describing him as being more fatherly than his Greek aspect, Zeus.
- Jupiter is spelled Iuppiter in Latin.
- It was declared that in the Second World War the sons of Zeus / Jupiter and Poseidon / Neptune were in charge of the winning side, therefore they had to be in charge of the United States of America, England and China.
- So it is possible that Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, George Marshall and Chiang Kai-shek were sons of Zeus/Jupiter.