Jupiter (sometimes Jove) is the Roman counterpart of Zeus. As Jupiter, he becomes more strict, disciplined, militaristic, responsible, calm and warlike. The Greeks envisioned Zeus as a powerful and proud being, while the Romans envisioned Jupiter as a more formal and stoic version of his Greek counterpart, as well as more responsible.
Jupiter is the supreme god of the Roman pantheon. He is a god of light and sky, and protector of the state and its laws. The Romans worshipped him especially as Iuppiter Optimus Maximus ("Jupiter the Best and the Greatest"). This name refers not only to his rule over the universe, but also to his function as the god of the state who distributes laws, controls the realm, and makes his will known through various Oracles. He is also called Jove, most notably by English poets such as Alexander Pope and George Chapman, a name which derives from the majority of the grammatical forms of the word Iuppiter, all of which take the form Iov- (e.g. Iovis, Iove, Iovī).
He had a temple on the capitol, along with Juno and Minerva, but he was the most prominent of this Capitoline triad. His temple was not only the most important sanctuary in Rome; it was also the center of Roman political life. Here official offerings were made, treaties were signed and wars were declared, and the triumphant generals of the Roman army came here to give their thanks.
The distinguishing character of his person is majesty, and every thing about him carries dignity and authority with it; his look is meant to strike, sometimes with terror, and sometimes with gratitude, but always with respect. The Capitoline Jupiter, or Iuppiter Optimus Maximus, was the great guardian of the Romans, and was represented, in his chief temple, on the Capitoline Hill, as sitting on a curule chair, with a bolt of lightning in his right hand, and a scepter in his left.
The poets describe him as standing amidst his rapid horses, or his horses that make the thunder; for as the ancients had a strange idea of the brazen vault of heaven, they seem to have attributed the noise in a thunder storm to the rattling of Jupiter's chariot and horses on that great arch of brass all over their heads, as they supposed that he himself flung the flames out of his hand, which dart at the same time out of the clouds, beneath this arch.
In his Metamorphoses, the esteemed Roman poet Ovid described the reign of Jupiter thus: "Postquam Sāturnō tenebrōsa in Tartara missō sub Iove mundus erat, subiit argentea prōlēs, aurō dēterior, fulvō pretiōsior aere," which is roughly translated as "After, when Saturn was sent into shadowy Tartarus, the world was under Jupiter, and then came the silver offspring, worse than the gold, but more valuable than the fulvous bronze" (113-115). Under the reign of Jupiter arose the Silver Age, which succeeded the Golden Age of Saturn and preceded the Bronze Age. The four Ages of Man as described by Ovid are the Golden Age, Silver Age, Bronze Age, and the Iron Age, in which man grows increasingly deceitful and dishonorable.
When Jason Grace is found by Annabeth Chase at the Grand Canyon, he calls the gods by their Roman names instead of the Greek ones. Later that day, Chiron, who knows a small bit about his past, says that Jason was already claimed. To prove this, Jason calls down a bolt of lightning to prove he is a son of Zeus, but in actuality, he is a son of Jupiter.
Later when meeting with Thalia Grace, she talks about how Zeus returned to their mother Beryl once after she was born. She described him as being different from how she remembered him, being more forbearing, mature, and fatherly. This is because Beryl had gained not the attention of Zeus, but Jupiter.
While not seen, the Roman demigods have the highest respect for Jupiter. The camp itself is named after him, as well as the largest temple on Temple Hill, the Temple of Jupiter and has a large statue of Jupiter holding a lightning bolt inside. When Percy Jackson saw it, he remarked on how his bolt didn't look like that. Later, after the Roman War Games, Mars appeared and told the Romans that while Jupiter doesn't like the gods speaking directly to mortals, he gave Mars permission to speak for only a few minutes.
Iris also mentioned Jupiter to Frank Zhang, telling him that he was the one that sent the harpies to keep food and drink away from Phineas as punishment for revealing the intentions of the gods to mortals. Jupiter is later mentioned by Juno during her conversation with Percy, admitting to him that she was working behind Jupiter's back in order to bring the two sets of demigods together. She also admits that Jupiter has a long history of his pride leading him to be wrong on important issues only to be forced to change his stand on a later date.
Jason is stated to be a son of Jupiter multiple times.
Juno explains she has to keep moving and cannot do much to aid the demigods because Jupiter blames her for the war and seeks to punish her.
During the final battle against the giants, Jason fully accepts his status as a son of Jupiter.
According to Thalia, Jupiter is far more disciplined than his Greek counterpart, acting in a more paternal manner towards his children than Zeus. Jupiter also limits how and when the gods can interact with mortals and demigods, showing a more strict and closed up relationship even towards his own demigod children.
- As one of the Big Three, Jupiter has the ultimate powers a god can possess, and is rivaled only by his brothers, Neptune and Pluto. He possesses the standard physical, intellectual, and magical superiority inherent in all gods, though to a much greater degree due to his status as one of the oldest gods as well as one of the Big Three.
- Aerokinesis: As the god of the sky, he has absolute control over air.
- Nephelokinesis: He has complete control over clouds.
- He can manipulate clouds and any other air structures.
- He can generate wind.
- He can generate incredibly powerful hurricanes and tornadoes.
- He can manipulate air currents and fly.
- Atmokinesis: As the god of the sky, he has absolute control over the weather.
- Electrokinesis: As the god of Thunder and Lightning, he has absolute control over both static and celestial electricity.
- He is immune to lightning.
- He can generate tremendous bolts of lightning.
- He can send static shock through the bodies of others on contact.
- Master Bolt: His most powerful weapon, the Master Bolt, is incredibly powerful, easily making a hydrogen bomb look like a firecracker in comparison.
|Alcmene||Hercules (born a demigod)|
|Juno||Mars, Lucina, Bellona, and Juventas|
|Latona||Diana and Apollo|
|Semele||Bacchus (born a demigod)|
|Beryl Grace||Jason Grace and Thalia Grace (as Zeus )|
- Jupiter is the namesake of Camp Jupiter.
- The fifth and biggest planet of the Solar System was named after the god.
- Jupiter's moons, with the exception of Ganymede and Pasiphae, are all named after his ex-lovers (Callisto, Europa, etc.)
- An alternate name for Jupiter is Jove, used by Pope in his translation of The Iliad. This arises from the fact that although the nominative and vocative singular cases are Iuppiter, the rest take forms with the stem Iov-. For example, the genitive singular is Iovis.
- Jupiter is referred to as Optimus Maximus, meaning "the best and the greatest" in Latin. The former is the superlative masculine singular form of bonus (good), and the latter is the superlative masculine singular of magnus (great, big).
- Jupiter, a town in Florida, is named after this Roman god.
- Frank Zhang states that as Jupiter, Zeus became a more responsible god. This could relate to Thalia describing him as being more fatherly than his Greek aspect, Zeus.
- Jupiter is spelled Iuppiter in Latin.